Month: November 2014

Learn To Identify And Harvest Wild Cranberries Using These 6 Steps

wildcranberrieswildfoodismWouldn’t you love to know, with almost absolute certainty, where a specific wild food grows?  I’m not talking about merely being able to recite a particular habitat characteristic of a specific plant or mushroom, but rather really knowing, before even setting out on your foraging adventure, where your organism of interest can be found.

For example, reading in a field guide, you will learn that wild rice can generally be found in bodies of flowing water, such as rivers, streams, and shallow lakes that have an inlet and outlet.  Morel mushrooms, you will read, are associated with old apple orchards and stands of tulip poplar, ash, beech, maple, and dead or dying elm trees.

It’s one thing to verbalize this information.  It’s another to truly know and understand where these habitats actually exist.

“… shallow lakes with an inlet and outlet?  Where the heck are those?”

“… old apple orchards?  I don’t even know where to begin.”

In this post, I am going to present an easy and simplified guide to locating, identifying, and harvesting wild edibles, using wild cranberries as an example.  Many blogs and field guides will lay out exact habitats for wild organisms, providing extremely detailed text-book descriptions.  This is important information, and a great starting point.  It is my intention to explain a bit further how I then use this information to go out and find, with certainty, the exact food for which I am looking.

Stalking the wild cranberries

  • Use a field guide to learn habitat, defining features, physical description, and proper season of harvesting.

    As previously stated, a field guide is an excellent starting tool.  How can you find anything without knowing exactly what it is you are looking for?  While the question may appear to be a metaphysical one, it is certainly relevant to the topic at hand.

    The wild cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a trailing evergreen shrub with leaves oblong-elliptic and entire (click on the image above to view details). Its habitat generally includes slightly acidic bogs, swamps, peaty wetlands and, occasionally, poorly drained meadows.  The fruit hardly needs a description, as the cultivated cranberry, found inhabiting supermarkets across the country, appears quite the same.  In the wild, the fruit is (no surprise) red, sour, and 10-20 millimeters in size, hanging from pedicels 2-3 centimeters long.  The small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos) presents slight physical differences, though it can be used and eaten in the same manner as the large wild cranberry.  Both fruits ripen in the autumn months.

    North American distribution of large cranberry

    North American distribution of large cranberry, highlighted in green (USDA Plants Database)

  • Ask yourself, “Have I been to an area that includes the specified habitat?”

    It’s a simple question:  Have you ever stumbled upon bogs, swamps, peaty wetlands, or poorly drained meadows?  Think for a moment.  It is likely that you have invested a good portion of your time exploring the wilderness, whether through foraging adventures, hiking, camping, mountain biking, climbing, or any other outdoor excursions.  Can you ever remember a habitat resembling the one characteristic of wild cranberries?

    If so, go there when the time is right (supermarkets don’t count).  If not, read on.


    A typical cranberry habitat – bog, during the proper season of harvesting – autumn.

  • Ask around.

    Remember the old adage:  “Ask, and you shall receive.”  Truer words were never spoken.

    You can approach this step one of two ways:  Ask others directly if they know where wild cranberries grow, or ask them if they’re aware of any bogs, swamps, or peaty wetlands in your general area.  I find this step rather effective in fostering the success of my hunt, with the latter question yielding more results than the former (secret spots are hard to part with).

    Who to ask?  Now, I understand that rules and regulations apply regarding the harvesting of wild plants and mushrooms in certain areas, and I’ll provide the usual disclaimer:  know the guidelines in your targeted area.  Having said that, contacting community and state parks and speaking to park staff officials can yield positive results.  Emails, phone calls, and personal interactions (the latter being my go-to method) have all yielded success in my experiences when asking both questions (Do you know where wild cranberries grow? Do you know of any bogs in the area?).  Other groups to survey include naturalists, local foragers, and those who frequent online foraging forums.

    And of course, naturalist-led walks, workshops, and events are excellent educational opportunities to learn your land firsthand, both through the learning experience itself, as well as through the ability to ask event leaders and participants the aforementioned questions.

  • Use a search engine

    Type “(your state) wild cranberries” into your favorite search engine.  Additionally, search the wild cranberry habitat by typing “(your state) bog” into a search engine.  Don’t limit your search to the first page of search results.  Rather, keep digging deeper, through state park websites, research materials, personal blogs, and online forums.  Chances are good that you will discover pertinent information leading to an area replete with wild cranberries.

  • Use a topographic map

    “How little is on an ordinary map!  How little, I mean, that concerns the walker and the lover of nature.” – Henry David Thoreau

    Thoreau surely wasn’t talking about a topographic map, as this particular tool contains a detailed and graphic representation of natural and cultural features, including water, relief, and vegetation.  This resource is especially helpful in the search for wild cranberries.  If you recall, cranberries typically inhabit bogs, swamps, and peaty wetlands.  Lucky for us, this habitat is featured on a topographic map.


    Accessing a topographic map of your area is easy.  To view free maps, check out

    I am not affiliated with the website in any way, though I find it useful when searching for particular habitats, in this case – bogs.  Now, let’s imagine you are scanning your area using a topographic map, and you discover something that looks like this:


    If located within the general geographic location of wild cranberries (Pennsylvania, for sure; Oklahoma, not likely), this is most certainly an area where your coveted fruits may be found.  Examine further the general area, seeing if there are more bogs nearby, if the land is public, and whether or not the land is accessible to humans (hiking in 20 miles for cranberries displays some serious dedication).

  • Become an observer of habitats

    With each adventure into the wilderness, take note of the habitats you encounter.  Write down your experiences.  Develop a catalog of ecosystems.  When hiking a favorite trail, for instance, notice that habitats can morph and evolve every few miles, starting with a hemlock forest lining a river valley, moving upland into an area with hardwood trees, and eventually opening up into a peaty bog.  Each habitat can be characterized by distinct species that live and thrive in these areas.  As you begin your search for wild cranberries, perhaps you will recall this trail and explore its bog in more depth.  Use every experience in nature to absorb the features of the land.  When the time comes, any future search for a wild food will be met with less resistance, more ease, and more fun.

The guidelines outlined above can be used not just for wild cranberries, but for any wild food.  Looking back to our wild rice example, for instance, we can use a topographic map to locate a lake that contains an inlet and an outlet in our general area.  For morel mushrooms, we can join a local mushroom club, attend its walks, and ask the trusted identifiers for help in locating old apple orchards, tulip poplars, and dead or dying elm trees (good luck asking them about their favorite spots though).

Now, I understand that not every wild food will be located with absolute ease 100% of the time.  And no single step listed above will work at the exclusion of the others.  However, if you do go through this list and apply the information as best you can, I have confidence that you can refine and vastly improve your skills in locating, identifying, and harvesting your wild food of choice.

Thanks for reading, and as always … happy foraging!

Oh yes, one more thing.  I’d love for you to check out this recent video I created regarding … you guessed it … wild cranberries!

Let’s stay in touch!  To receive information from Adam Haritan on wild plant and mushroom identification, please enter your name and email address below.  Thank you!


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Adam Haritan






Common Ink Cap, And Other Mushrooms That Shouldn’t Be Consumed With Alcohol

Coprinopsisatramentaria2019Remember all those college parties with friends, loud music, beer, and meals upon meals full of mushrooms?  Yeah, me neither.  Perhaps I was never invited to the mycological fraternity parties, or perhaps all the mushroom dishes were always eaten before my arrival.  Whatever the reason, it’s probably a good thing that two of these variables — alcohol and mushrooms — weren’t included in the same setting.

Now, it’s not that all edible mushrooms should never be consumed with alcohol.  Many are absolutely harmless with or without the accompanying beer, wine, or liquor.  There are, however, a few mushrooms that have been shown, both through personal accounts and in the scientific literature, to cause rather unpleasant symptoms only when consumed with alcohol.

Interesting, isn’t it?  Mushrooms that contain toxins, that are generally only toxic when combined with another toxin.

That’s a lot to wrap our heads around, so let’s see what’s going on here with the select mushrooms that made the list.

Common Ink Cap (Coprinopsis atramentaria)

With an additional common name like Tippler’s Bane, a description hardly needs to be given.  Aptly named, this mushroom (pictured above) is the fungus most often associated with the negative symptoms experienced when consuming mushrooms with alcohol.   The Tippler’s Bane, it turns out, contains a naturally occurring compound that inhibits the body’s ability to metabolize alcohol.

You see, ethanol (alcohol) is essentially a toxin (the dose makes the poison, wouldn’t ya say?) that needs to be metabolized properly in the body in order to be eliminated.  The most common pathway looks like this:

  1. Alcohol is converted into acetaldehyde by an enzyme known as alcohol dehydrogenase.
  2. Acetaldehyde is further broken down into acetate by an enzyme known as acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.
  3. Acetic acid is ultimately broken down into carbon dioxide and water in the citric acid cycle.

*Note:  this is an oversimplified description of alcohol metabolism.  Numerous additional enzymes and steps are involved, though for this article’s sake, only these three main steps are mentioned.  Chemists, accept my apology.

The Common Ink Cap exerts its effects during the second step by way of a compound known as coprine.  This non-protein amino acid, when ingested, is converted into its metabolite, 1-aminocyclopropanol (ACP) –  a potent inhibitor of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (1).

If we look back to the second step, we can already predict the problem that the combined effect of the Tippler’s Bane and alcohol would create inside the body:  a buildup of acetaldehyde (2).  What’s the deal with too much acetaldehyde?  Well, for starters, this compound is a potent carcinogen in the upper digestive tract of humans, associated with both esophageal and gastric cancers (3).  It’s also the main carcinogen found in tobacco smoke.

Now, this isn’t to say that consumption of this species with alcohol on a single occasion will significantly increase one’s risk of cancer (I suppose it is a possibility, though no studies to my knowledge have addressed this hypothesis).  Unpleasant symptoms in the acute setting, however, may let you know your acetaldehyde levels are escalating.

*Note:  not everyone will experience negative symptoms, though caution should still be taken.

When consuming Common Ink Cap mushrooms with alcohol, symptoms include tachycardia (rapid heart rate), palpitations, nausea, flushing of the face, tingling of extremities, and headaches (4).  These symptoms are very similar to Antabuse (disulfiram), a prescription drug given to individuals experiencing chronic alcoholism in an attempt to discourage consumption of alcohol.  Antabuse works in a similar manner to coprine, inhibiting acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and forcing a buildup of the carcinogenic compound, acetaldehyde (…you’d think there would be a better way).

There are a few important pieces of information to keep in mind.  The severity of symptoms depends on several factors, including the amount of mushrooms consumed, the amount of alcohol consumed, and the duration between the two.  The symptoms may appear within 15 minutes to 2 hours, and generally occur between 3 – 6 hours after consuming the combination.  Recovery is usually spontaneous.

Symptoms usually manifest when alcohol is ingested after mushroom consumption, though in sensitive individuals the reverse can also be true.  Because sensitivity can persist, recommendations include abstaining from alcohol for 2 – 3 days after mushroom ingestion.

Coprine, the causal agent in the buildup of acetaldehyde, is reported to be present somewhere between 160 – 360 milligrams per kilogram of fresh fruiting body material.  It is not destroyed by cooking.  The level has been found to be more concentrated in older mushrooms, with half as much occurring in younger specimens (1).  Remember, though, that the Antabuse-like effects are not experienced when Common Ink Cap mushrooms are consumed without alcohol.  Some authors report that this species should never be eaten, while others consider it a good, meaty edible.

The Common Ink Cap is found quite readily in grass and wood debris throughout North America.  A defining feature of its genus includes the deliquescence of the gills and cap – the ability to auto-digest and turn into an inky black goo (hence the name “inky cap”).  I see no reason to forgo this edible mushroom when approaching it with the usual foraging precautions (be positive of your identification, consume only a small amount the first time, understand its contraindications, etc.).

The Common Ink Cap, aka the Tippler’s Bane, therefore, is indeed edible … with caution.

Other mushrooms that produce disulfiram-like effects

The Common Ink Cap, Coprinopsis atramentaria, is taxononimcally placed within the section Atramentarii.  Interestingly (or not), other species within this section have been shown to contain coprine.

These species include:

C. acuminata
C. alopecia
C. erythrocephala
C. fusispora
C. geesterani
C. insignis
C. jamaicensis
C. krieglsteineri
C. maculatus
C. ochraceolanata
C. romagnesiana
C. variegata

Additionally, an unrelated fungus known as Imperator torsus (the Brawny Bolete), is reported to contain coprine.

All the species listed above, in addition to Coprinopsis atramentaria, should not be consumed with alcohol.  Otherwise, coprine within these mushrooms can inhibit acetaldehyde dehydrogenase… therefore forcing a buildup of acetaldehyde within the human body and potentially resulting in tachycardia, palpitations, nausea, flushing of the face, tingling of extremities, headaches… you get the point.

Other mushrooms that may or may not produce undesirable effects when consumed with alcohol

Up until now, we’ve discussed mushrooms that contain coprine.  All of them, save for Imperator torsus, are taxonomically placed within the Coprinopsis genus, section Atramentarii.

(As a side note, Coprinopsis fungi within the section Picacei are also reported to contain coprine.  More information on this is forthcoming).

If you dig a little deeper through various reports, you’ll eventually encounter cases of completely unrelated mushrooms causing undesirable side effects when consumed with alcohol.  In almost all these cases, the mechanisms behind these “poisonings” have not been identified.  The majority are anecdotal, and are only experienced by very few people.

Please keep this in mind.

Morel mushrooms are listed below.  This does not mean you will get sick eating Morels while drinking beer.  We all know plenty of people who do both.

Chicken Of The Woods is listed below.  This does not mean you will get sick eating Chicken Of The Woods while drinking wine.  We all know plenty of people who do both.

Coprine is found in mushrooms within the Coprinopsis genus, section Atramentarii, as well as in Imperator torsus.  Coprine is not found in the mushrooms listed below.  Whether or not the following mushrooms actually contain any specific compound (they probably don’t) that interferes with the human body’s ability to metabolize alcohol is speculation.

Still, the reports listed below are featured on various websites, in books, and occasionally in scientific publications.

I thought I’d include them here, too.

Please proceed.

Freckled Dapperling (Echinoderma asperum)


Known in many field guides as Lepiota acutesquamosa and Lepiota aspera, this mushroom is commonly found in eastern and southwestern North America on the ground in leaf litter from late summer through autumn.

A study from 2011 reported on the effects of E. asperum consumption in combination with alcohol in five patients (7).  All had mistaken E. asperum mushrooms for Amanita rubescens or Macrolepiota procera.  Before consumption, the mushrooms were sautéed, and presented no problems until alcohol was ingested.  Within a few minutes, symptoms developed, including facial flushing, tachycardia, headaches, and shortness of breath.  The effects persisted for a few hours.  Recovery was spontaneous, though symptoms could be reactivated by consuming alcohol up to 48 hours later.  While these symptoms were very similar to those presented by the Tippler’s Bane, the toxin in E. asperum has not been identified.

E. asperum is listed in field guides as edible, though not recommended for consumption.  Aside from the ill effects observed when consuming this mushroom with alcohol, E. asperum can be mistaken for deadly Amanita mushrooms, in addition to other poisonous lepiotoid fungi.

Fat-Footed Clitocybe (Ampulloclitocybe clavipes)


Credit: James Lindsey at Ecology of Commanster

This mushroom, formerly known as Clitocybe clavipes, is widely distributed in North America, and can be found under conifers and hardwoods in the autumn and winter months.  Like Echinoderma asperum, A. clavipes has been shown to cause ill effects when consumed prior to alcohol consumption, though the exact toxin has not been identified.

In the scientific literature, it is reported that on three separate occasions, ingesting alcohol 7 hours after consuming four to six A. clavipes fruiting bodies produced Antabuse-like effects (8).  These included a feeling of warmth in the face, puffiness in the hands, and headaches.  Symptoms could be re-provoked the next day after subsequent alcohol ingestion, though these effects were usually milder than the previous day’s.

Ampulloclitocybe clavipes is listed in the field guides as an edible mushroom, though it is not recommended for consumption as it resembles several toxic species.

Lurid Bolete (Suillellus luridus)


Credit: Tomas Čekanavičius

The Lurid Bolete is a blue-staining European bolete species.  Three cases of mild intoxication have been reported when combining the lurid bolete with alcohol, though unlike the Tippler’s Bane, the main toxin has not been identified (9).

Morels (Morchella spp.)


Is there any mushroom more desirable than the Morel?  They’re delicious, nutritious, and medicinal, and while they are considered some of the safest edible mushrooms to identify, there have been reports that eating cooked Morels while imbibing alcohol can produce gastrointestinal distress in some individuals (10).

Few, if any, studies exist regarding this subject, and the exact mechanism of intoxication has not been identified.

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)


The scaly Pholiota is commonly found in clusters on logs, stumps, and at the bases of trees.  Unlike the other mushrooms described in this article, the Scaly Pholiota is considered a poisonous mushroom (though some older field guides list it as edible with caution).  When combined with alcohol, this reportedly poisonous mushroom may become even more toxic.  At least three cases of intoxication have been reported when combining the Scaly Pholiota with alcohol, with symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and shock (10).

Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)


The Oyster Mushroom is a choice edible that can be found year round growing on wood throughout North America.  According to the North American Mycological Association, the Oyster Mushroom may produce unpleasant side effects in some individuals when consumed with alcohol (11).  I have not been able to find any additional research on this subject.

Honey Mushroom (Armillaria spp.)


Armillaria is a genus that comprises over 30 species of wood-decaying fungi. These species are primarily recognized for their association with root rot of woody plants, but they are also important decomposers within many forested environments.

According to the North American Mycological Association, Armillaria species may produce unpleasant side effects in some individuals when consumed with alcohol (11).  The exact mechanism has not been identified.

King Bolete (Boletus edulis)


Credit: Hans Hillewaert

A prized edible mushroom, the King Bolete has been shown (in extremely rare instances) to cause ill effects when consumed with alcohol (11, 12).  Any mechanism has not been identified.

Chicken Mushroom (Laetiporus sulphureus)


Wait a second, what’s going on here?  Another prized edible mushroom best to be avoided while engaging in adult beverage consumption?  Well, before you start throwing puffballs at me, consider that most of the information on this subject is anecdotal, and no mechanism has been identified.  The Chicken Mushroom, combined with alcohol ingestion, seems only to be an issue in rare instances (10).

Phew.  I’ll stop there before I create any more teetotalers.  Or before you call me out for spreading “mycophobia.”  I would never do such a thing.

Looking back, however, we do have quite a few fungi that unquestionably may produce undesirable side effects when consumed with alcohol.

Now, I understand that an infinite amount of exceptions exist.  Hopefully, you understand this too.

Not everyone will react the same way; some may be hit harder than others, and some won’t feel a thing.  This information is simply provided to help you make responsible and conscious decisions when foraging and consuming wild mushrooms.

And I’ll end this post the way I end most of my mushroom posts:  always be 100% sure of a mushroom’s identity before ingesting it in any form.  There are numerous field guides, online forums, mycological clubs, and experts available to help you in your mushrooming quest.  Use them all, they’re great!

Thanks for reading, and as always… happy foraging!

Additional references:
1. Gry, J. and Andersson, C. (2014). Mushrooms traded as food Vol II Sec. 2. Copenhagen: Nordic Council Of Ministers.
6. Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.
10. Ammirati, J. (1985). Poisonous mushrooms of the northern United States and Canada. Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press.

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Thank you!
Adam Haritan

Everyday Is A Day To Vote “Yes”

rickettsglenwildfoodismWell, today is the “day” to vote. Apparently today only, though. Yesterday was too early, tomorrow is too late.

The way I see it is this: every action we take … on a daily basis … casts a vote on our behalf. For example, every time we buy and eat organic, we are voting “Yes” to a world that values healthy humans, organisms, and ecosystems over a society that literally (yes, literally) poisons its food supply, poisons its soil, and ultimately creates the diseases it works so hard to cure (we’ll keep racing). Is it any surprise that a large body of evidence supports the causation of various diseases (e.g. birth defects, cancers) and other health effects (e.g. neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption, kidney and liver damage) by exposure to pesticides (1)?

Who would willingly vote for that?

Every time we engage with the natural world, acknowledge its myriad roles, and appreciate its gifts, we are voting “Yes” to nature’s existence, its longevity, and its health, and we are voting “No” to the allowance of myopically-dazed industries to force their way in, disfigure the land, make a quick buck, and deem it all “progress.” According to the World Resources Institute, more than 80% of the Earth’s forests already have been destroyed.


Who would willingly vote for that?

Why reserve your vote for only one day out of the year? Voting can be an admirable act, for sure, and instead of proclaiming to everyone that you voted only today, let others know through your actions that your whole life is a constant, consistent, and never-ending vote for all things life-promoting and sustainable.

First week of November or not, I’ll be voting for that!

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Thank you!
Adam Haritan